literature review comparing united states correction system to norways correction system

Basic guidelines and formatting:


This paper must be in APA formatting. If you need help with this formatting, here are two

websites that may be useful:… and


This also means that the paper must be double-spaced, have 1-inch margins (top, bottom,

left, and right), and be Times New Roman size 12 font.


This paper must be at LEAST 1000 words but no more than 1500 words long. You must

also have a cover and reference page (APA style), however these pages do not count

toward the word requirement. In-text citations are required for this paper.


5 peer-reviewed, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles are required. A good place to

start looking for these sources is through the UTC Library (

While other references may be used, they will be supplemental to the 5 required peer-

reviewed journal articles.


While it is acceptable to use quotations, it is better to explain in your own words. Please

keep quotes to a minimum and paraphrase when possible. Points will be deducted for

excessive quotations.


Please remember that this is a formal paper. Do not use first person in this paper. Do not

include subjective/biased language. Do not use colloquialisms or vernacular terms or keep

their use to a bare minimum. Do not use contractions (e.g., don’t, can’t, wouldn’t). Do not

use abbreviations (e.g. rehab). Introduce acronyms before using them (e.g., The Federal

Bureau of Investigations (FBI)…).


If you do not follow these guidelines, points will be deducted.

Contents and Components:

In this assignment, you are expected to write a succinct review of

literature which focuses on your particular topic. It may be useful for you to pose a question

about your topic that you would like to answer using empirical literature. For example, maybe

you are interested in substance abuse treatment programs. A good guiding question for your

paper might be: what is the history of substance abuse treatment programs in the US and what is

the current standing of these programs? You might also be guided by: what are the most

effective components of substance abuse treatment programs? In order to do this, you are


to use at least 5 scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. While you are allowed to use

other sources as well, these will be supplemental to your 5 required ones. There are several

components that you might have in this paper to accomplish this task.


In parentheses beside

each header I have included a tentative word count to give you an idea of about how much of

the paper each section should take up – these are not set-in-stone rules, but rather



Introduction (200-300 words)

– introduce your topic. In this section, you explain the

significance/importance of your topic. You will also need to provide a roadmap as to

where the paper is going.

Please remember that an introduction to any paper is where you answer the “so what?” question. You are luring the reader in – explaining why she should



Your introduction may include a brief history of the issue or it may convey the

current standing of the issue, or both. It is important to remember that this section is

a brief overview to highlight what is to come.


Review of Literature (750-1000 words)

– in this section you will review relevant literature

concerning your topic/issue. In this section you highlight relevant themes concerning your

topic. It is important to remember that a literature review should be written


rather than by study. This means you move from one theme to the next rather than from

one study to another study to another study.


A literature review helps you better understand the research that has been done

about a topic. It also helps you understand what we know about this topic.


It may describe relationships, for instance, the relationship between gender and the

death penalty.


It may also reveal gaps in the literature – you may need to highlight what we do not

know about your topic. What hasn’t been studied? What answers haven’t been



KEEP IN MIND – each time you provide a fact or figure beyond common

knowledge you need to cite it. So, if you tell me that 60% of inmates have a drug

problem, cite the source where you found that information. If you say a majority of

inmates have a drug problem, you are still indicating a number and you need to cite



Conclusion (100-250 words)

– tie it all together. Hit the main points again. End on a high


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