shanki discussion4 replies

No need to provide answer to main question ,read below student posts (three posts) and reply each in 150 words.

main que :Attacks on our national infrastructure are already happening. And the expectation is that they will continue to increase at an accelerated rate. For this week’s discussion, we’ll cover threats to our nation’s pipelines. To get started, read this article:

After reading the article, start a discussion thread and discuss how the types of threats discussed in the article could impact our economy, and how implementing Diversity (as discussed in chapter 4 ) could help mitigate these threats.

srinath – If the present day attacks on customer critiques of Equifax have taught us anything, it is to make advantageous that groups are increasing their stylish bars on defending prepared or un-organized data in order to hold away from facts breaches. It is understood clearly that constructions which independent or inter-dependent on every different equally pose a danger of being vulnerable. The basic thought processes exemplify probably the most questionable subjects like how the vast majority of these structures are interconnected with each extraordinary or to the terrace world through Internet and don’t have the most grounded credits to make them inaccessible. Cyber Attacks are now not totally described as breaching of records on the inter connectivity line; it is additionally the hacking of critical day to day merchandise like oil and gas pipelines which are very integral segment to economic machine and politics of the world. This is because the entirety in twenty first century is managed by systems on foot online and a simple set off of values in zero vs. 1 in a vault of software can damage a going for walks oil pipeline or damage millions of people. Diverting this theme greater toward a special organization which influences the dollars of the world is the hacking of structures controlling oil and gas services and distribution centers. One handy assault on this enterprise can lead to curbing of the most critical commodity in our lives inflicting costs to shoot up and ship political world on a rage. The hacks don’t even choose to be as large as starting or stopping a machine then again truly changing the weight or content material of a commodity can lead to drastic bad ripple effects (Amoroso, 2011).

The hackers assault two primary elements when it comes to oil and fuel business enterprise – the IT and the operations. The IT region when hacked leads to breach in information dealing with day to day business. While on the different hand the operations hack can purpose the very working of the pipelines or plant overall performance to be disturbed. Because of the awareness to protect such facts or operational breaches it department of security except a doubt launched a safety measure legislation for the transport and power structures.

With Diversity and commonality I accept as true with that there is a breathe of clean air and an understanding which is agreed upon with the resource of most industries to put in force normal high standardized bar of protection and quit breaches. I agree with that Diversity in methodology of safety implementation and configurations helps in designing constructions that are difficult to predict and crew into acknowledged patterns which is key to hold away from any assault either on IT or Operational component of the data. The key is to add a mixture of manual vs. computerized protection rules and guidelines into granting get proper of entry to and smash the very root of the threat that is shaking the world (Fitness, 2016).

Harsha –


The field of cyber security is in shortage of skills and is getting worse day by day. This gap has increased to three million. The organizations are in urgent need to control the cyber-attacks, and therefore they need exquisite security measures to overcome cyber hurdles. The security measures need not be expensive. The concept of diversification can bring a simple but drastic change and keep their security measures updated. If the implementation of these measures is done in an optimal way, like recruitment strategy of the employees done effectively can welcome more efficient security skills within the organization.

Implementation of diversity

Getting this change can be challenge, as the recruitment of the IT professionals to recruit the strategies which will encourage the diversified people to apply for new jobs. Diversity comes in varied forms, that includes race, sex, gender, age and other physical abilities. The essential part is to identify the benefits of diversity(Allen, 2018).

To embrace the phenomenon the gender diversity, the companies can take numerous benefits out of it like women and men risks their talents in a different manner. The survey states that women are more tuned up to adjust to risk options rather than men. They are more capable of adjusting to changing patterns. Security is a must in the technological field and comes with it a diversified team of stakeholders. It is the integral component, and the organization must aspire to look for solutions across all departments. The solutions in the field of cybersecurity are more accessible than it can be realized. The diversity involves gender and ethnicity of the individuals. The employees working for the organization must share their views with the mentors and peers. There should be an assurance that there will be someone available to support when needed. The competition in this field is quite stiff, therefore the organizations must always invest good quality talent in them(Mukherjee, 2019).

shansank – Diversity in national infrastructure involves the introduction of intentional differences into systems such as vendor source, deployment approach, network connectivity, targeted standards, programming language, operating system, and software version. Two systems are considered diverse if their key attributes differ, and nondiverse otherwise. The requirement for physical diversity in the design of computing infrastructure is perhaps the most familiar of all diversity-related issues. The idea is that any computing or networking asset that serves as an essential component of some critical function must include physical distribution to increase its survivability. A national diversity program should be developed that would call for coordination between companies and governmental agencies in several

Diversity becomes very important when securing any set of national assets. Diversity can be achieved either in hardware of software form. Diversity can be in the form of vendor source, deployment approach, network connectivity, targeted standards, programming language, operating system etc. Different threats can affect the economy adversely if not treated at the right time and right place. A normal worm attack can be curbed at the source itself or be allowed to spread depending on the security measures taken by an organization. In an non diverse system, it takes just one path to penetrate across all the hardwares or softwares. If the system is diverse, it will ensure that a standard program cannot be run to penetrate across all the systems. For a worm to spread, first a target is located, the program is placed on the target and then remotely controlled by giving it time to spread (Rid & Buchanan, 2015). If there is diversity in systems with respect to hardware or software, a worm, targeted for one system penetrates that particular system. Based on similar structure, it tries to penetrate other systems. If there are four systems, let’s say, then worm may attack only one of them and rejected by others. In the same chain, if it further progresses and tries to attack more systems, it has less commonality with respect to other systems in place, hence chances of rejection are all the more higher. Thus, instead of attacking 100 systems, the worm may be able to attack only 5 systems, thanks to diversity. So, diversity increases the non predictability of different components of a predictable system (Amoroso, 2012).

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